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Galing Pinoys: Filipino Athletes Going for Gold in Olympics

by Joseph Pimentel/AJPress
WHEN pound-4-pound boxing great Manny Pacquiao waves the Philippine flag to the sound of Lupang Hinirang at the Olympics opening ceremony, he’ll be introducing the Philippines best athletes to the world.

For the next three weeks all eyes will be on Beijing, China as it host the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. There are 15 athletes from the Philippines competing in the world’s grandest stage against the best the world has to offer.

Despite the fact that no Philippine athlete in 80 years has ever won Olympic gold, it’s not going to dissuade any of this year’s representatives from trying. As an incentive, it’s been reported that the Philippine government along with business leaders and other groups has offered a 15 million pesos ($340,000) cash prize to any Philippine Olympic athlete who receives a gold medal.

The last time the Philippines won a medal was in the Atlanta games in 1996. Light flyweight Mansueto Velasco captured the silver medal in boxing.

In total, the Philippines have won two silver and seven bronzes for a total of nine Olympic medals in its history. By far, the Philippines best sport is boxing, capturing five of its nine medals.

This year, the country’s best chance of a gold medal lies in the feats of these stellar athletes.

With the cash prize so lucrative and a chance for Olympic glory high, here is a list and brief bio of the Pinoy athletes going for gold in their respective event:

ARCHERY

Mark Javier: This is the first Olympic games for the 27-year-old from Dumaguete City, Philippines. He earned an Olympic berth after placing first in the Asian Continental competition in Xian, China. He’s a 2005 Southeast Asian (SEA) Games gold medalist and won a bronze medal in the 2007 SEA Games in Thailand.

BOXING

Harry Tañamor: Tañamor is the country’s best chance for an Olympic medal perhaps even a gold, according to Sports Illustrated Olympic edition. This is Tañamor’s second Olympic berth. The 29-year-old southpaw boxer from Zamboanga City is competing in the Light Flyweight (48 kg) division. He placed ninth in the 2004 Olympics.

DIVING

Rexel Ryan Fabriga: Fabriga is a 23-year-old diver from Zamboanga City. He qualified for the Beijing, Olympics after placing fourth in the 10-meter platform event at the FINA Diving World Cup competition in China. He’s a former SEA game gold medalist at the 10-meter platform event.

Sheila Mae Perez: This is the third time Perez has qualified for the Olympics. After placing 32nd in the 2000 Australia games, she qualified but did not compete in the 2004 Athens Olympics. She’s won a gold and a silver medal in the 2007 SEA games and is considered by many as one of the best divers in Southeast Asia.

SWIMMING

Ryan Arabejo: The 19-year-old swimmer from Makati City overcame an asthmatic condition early in his life to become an Olympic athlete. Arabejo holds the Philippine record in the 400-meter freestyle (3:58.51) and the 50m backstroke (28.29). Arabejo earned a slot in the 2008 Beijing Olympics by finishing six seconds faster than the Olympic qualifying standard time of 15:45.12, according an Inquirer.net report.

Daniel Coakley: Coakley is a 19-year-old FilAm hailing from Hawaii. He holds the Philippine Record in the 50m freestyle (23.08 seconds) and the SEA Games Record in the same event (22.80 sec.). It’s been reported that Coakley is the grand nephew of the late Teofilo Yldefonso, who is considered by many as the greatest Philippine swimmer. Yldefonso won the Philippines first Olympic medal (bronze) in the 200m-breaststroke event at the 1928 Amsterdam Games.

Miguel Molina: This is the second Olympic berth for the former FilAm Cal Berkeley graduate. Molina is competing in the men’s 200m breaststroke and men’s 200m individual Medley. During the last Olympic, he posted a 2:05.28 time in the 200m individual medley.

Christel Simms: Simms is a 17-year-old FilAm also from Hawaii. Born and raised in the US, she almost did not have a chance to represent the Philippines but the Court of Arbitration of Sports (CAS) upheld her petition to represent her parent’s home country. She qualified for the Olympics after posting 57.17 seconds, the qualifying standard for the 100m freestyle swimming events, at the USA Junior National Swimming Championships.

J.B. Walsh: The 22-year-old University of Florida graduate is another FilAm swimmer competing for the Philippines in his second straight Olympics. In Athens, he finished 37th in the 200m butterfly. He’ll be hoping to do better this time around when he competes in that same event. He’s also the Philippine record holder clocking 2:00.42.

TAEKWONDO:

Tshomlee Go: Besides Tañamor, the 27-year-old Go is also considered by many as one of the country’s best contenders for a gold medal in the Beijing Olympic games. The Taekwando jin made it to the Beijing Games via the World qualifying after beating six opponents in the 58-kg (127-pounds), the first Olympic weight category, according to the Inquirer.net report. It is Go’s second Olympic games. He competed in Athens but fell in the preliminary rounds.

Mary Antoinette Rivero: Rivero is also another gold medal hopeful. The 20-year-old student at Ateneo de Manila University nearly captured a silver medal four years ago in Athens. In the semifinals, she faced off against Greece’s Elizavet Mystakidou losing a close 2-3 decision. A win would have guaranteed Rivero a silver medal and a shot at gold. She got neither and lost the bronze medal match.

TRACK AND FIELD

Henry Dagmil: The 27-year-old South Cotabato resident will compete in the long jump. He holds the Philippine long jump record at 7.99 meters. He’s a 2007 SEA games gold medalist.

Marestella Torres: Torres is a 27-year-old competing in the women’s long jump. She captured the gold medal at the 2005 SEA and 2007 SEA Games. The Philippine Track and Field Association (PATAFA) selected Torres to represent the country at the Beijing Games.

SHOOTING

Eric Ang: At 37-years-old, Ang is the oldest athlete representing the Philippines. He earned a wildcard berth after posting convincing performances in the trap events of two international competitions, according to GMA-7.

WEIGHTLIFTING

Heidilyn Diaz: The 17-year-old Diaz is the youngest competitor for the Philippines. The Zamboanga City resident is also the first Filipino to compete in a weightlifting event. She earned a wild-card slot from the International Weightlifting Federation. She’ll compete in the 58-kilogram class (127 pounds).

(www.asianjournal.com)

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Pacquiao vs. De La Hoya Talks Stall: Golden Boy CEO says 75% Sure Fight will Happen

by Joseph Pimentel/AJPress
LOS ANGELES – Three key issues are stalling the proposed Manny Pacquiao vs. Oscar De La Hoya mega match up, according to Golden Boy CEO Richard Schaeffer.

Schaeffer said he met with Top Rank President Bob Arum, Pacquiao’s promoter, for two hours Wednesday but both sides could not come up with a consensus agreement about the deals of the fight which would be slated for December 6 at the MGM Grand in Las Vegas.

The three issues stalling the deal are the size of the boxing gloves, De La Hoya’s weight limit, and the financial split.

“Oscar hasn’t made 147 pounds in almost ten years,” said Schaeffer to the Asian Journal during the Shane Mosley vs. Ricardo Mayorga press conference. “And we know from experience that a boxer could lose the match on the scales. The size of the gloves is also an issue. Oscar is used to wearing 10 ounce gloves while Manny usually wears 8 ounce gloves in his fights.”

“[And] the financial split is what it is,” he said. “Every time I negotiate a De La Hoya fight it’s the same thing. Suddenly the opponent feels they should make Oscar [big] money and I feel certain people have a market value.”

He declined to discuss the specifics of the proposed fight purse and other financial aspects, adding, “we guarantee a record purse for Manny Pacquiao, multiple times more than he has ever made so far. We think it’s a fair deal.”

Since winning his match against Steve Forbes in May, the Golden Boy De La Hoya has been looking for a grand finale fight before he rides off to the retirement sunset. A proposed re-match with Floyd Mayweather Jr. was rebuffed when Mayweather abruptly retired. Mexican counterpart Antonio Margarito lies waiting in the wings but after impressively thrashing Puerto Rican champion Miguel Cotto to a bloody pulp, De La Hoya would be best served to stay away from him.

Meanwhile, Pacquiao has also been looking for an opponent since his dominating performance against Mexican American David Diaz. That night, Pacquiao became the first Asian to capture four world titles in four different weight classes. The 29-year-old WBC Lightweight Champion’s first opponent choice was British contender Ricky Hatton at 140 pounds, but Hatton is already slated to fight New York champion Paulie Malignaggi in November.

Pacquiao’s other possible fights: a rematch with Juan Manuel Marquez would be out the door, Venezuelan knockout artist Edwin Valero is having a hard time getting medical clearance in Nevada and Humberto Soto lost his most recent match albeit by a technicality.

At first, a possible Pacquiao vs. De La Hoya bout was a only a pipe dream of fans and boxing enthusiasts wondering “what if” match ups but the idea began to pick up steam when Pacquiao’s trainer Freddie Roach said Pacquiao could fight at 147 pounds, the welterweight class. In his last two matches, Pacquiao has weighed in the night of the fight at 146 and 147 pounds, respectively.

Schaeffer said that he’s confident that a Pacquiao vs. De La Hoya deal could be done.

“We have to do a lot of work on those three issues: the size of gloves, the weight – either at 149 or 150 pounds and financial split,” said Schaeffer. “I’ll say I’m cautiously optimistic. If I were to use percentages, I would say there’s a 75 percent chance a deal will be done in the next few weeks. I’ll be sitting down with Oscar next week. Arum will discuss this with Manny [when he gets back from the Olympics] and I’m sure in a few weeks everybody will know the outcome.”

(www.asianjournal.com)

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Remembering the Manongs of Manilatown

by Miko Santos/AJPress
SAN FRANCISCO – As you come in to the exhibit area of Manilatown Heritage Foundation in the International Hotel in downtown San Francisco, an overwhelming sense of history, both beautiful and sad hangs in the air.


Haunting black and white photographs line the gallery depicting the life and struggle of Manilatown’s former denizens centering on the tenants of the old International Hotel.

The photos include some very beautiful and sad images and stories in the captions: a photo of a distinguished Filipino gentleman and his band, an old man waiting by the stairs, photos of the elderly folk just ravaged with decades of labor and illness.

The exhibit entitled Manongs of Manilatown: The Inspiration of Al Robles, displays rarely seen photographs of Filipino elders by Tony Remington, Chris Huie and others.

Robles, renowned FilAm poet and activist, has dedicated his life to these elderly veteran community members, roaming single occupancy hotels and taking manongs to appointments, bringing them lunch and listening to their stories. He is the link to the disappearing “manong” generation, the bachelor society that came from the Philippines in the 1920s and ’30s as workers. He records, interprets, and channels their stories.

Throughout the mid-twentieth century, the International Hotel was home to elderly “manong” Filipino soldiers who served the United States in World War II and farm workers from Salinas, Watsonville, Stockton and Delano.

In 1977, after almost nine years of court battles and community protests, the manongs were evicted from the I-Hotel leaving many of them with nowhere to live. The event became a kind of civil rights struggle that galvanized Filipinos and other Asian-Americans. Thousands protested to block the eviction.

The show will run from July 26 through September 6 during regular gallery hours Tuesday to Saturday, 1:00 to 6:00 p.m.

The next event, at the International Hotel on August 9, will feature a poetic documentary, Time Travel with Al Robles, by Curtis Choy.

(www.asianjournal.com)

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The promised land: I-Hotel’s legacy lives

by Malou Liwanag-Aguilar/AJPress
During the mid 1960s, the I-Hotel, officially known as the International Hotel was targeted for demolition because of the urban renewal and redevelopment movement. The first eviction notices were issued to residents in 1968, but nine years of litigation, public protests and disagreements ensued.

A home, a community
Built in 1907, the I-Hotel was a low-cost residential hotel located at the corner of Kearny and Jackson Streets in the Manilatown section of San Francisco.   It was not only a home to many Asian Americans, but a community, specifically to the Filipino American population. But San Francisco’s growing financial district has made the land a prime piece of real estate.

The I-Hotel was a place to thousands of seasonal Asian laborers in the 1920s and 1930s  — many who were young Filipino and Chinese men who worked as laborers, dishwashers, messengers and other jobs that were referred to as “appropriate for Orientals.”  There were also the “old-timers,” those who settled in San Francisco after years of working in seasonal harvests, on merchant ships and canneries in Alaska and Washington.

For the most part also, Asian women were excluded from entering the US until 1965, preventing most men in Chinatown and Manilatown from having their own families.  According to Roots of Justice:  Stories of Organizing in Communities of Color by Larry R. Solomon, California’s antimiscegenation laws prevented Filipinos and other Asians from marrying outside their race, and the white elite pushed “race preservation” by bringing the issue before the House Committee on Immigration and Naturalization.

Still, life persisted, and the neighborhood grew to a community filled with camaraderie.

Lost, but not beaten
After WWII, plans were made to expand the downtown business center in San Francisco.  Low-cost housing, restaurants, barber shops, markets, clubs and other businesses that benefited the Filipino community were destroyed.  One of the hotels slated for demolition was the I-Hotel.  In March 1968, business magnate Walter Shorenstein bought the I-Hotel and made plans to construct a multilevel parking lot on the site.  Securing a demolition permit, he ordered the evictions of the 196 tenants.

But the word was put out – the battle cry was to “Fight to Save the I-Hotel.”  Students, community leaders and activists were up for the fight, a long one.  The final residents were evicted on August 4, 1977. In 1978, then-Mayor Dianne Feinstein created an International Hotel Citizens Advisory Committee, which was unable to break the deadlock between low-cost housing advocates and the property owner. The building stood empty while the fate of the site continued to be debated, but was finally demolished in 1981.

The site was acquired by St. Mary’s in 1994, but the air rights was later sold to Chinatown Community Development Center which planned to build a replacement low-cost residential project. Construction began on the new I-Hotel in 2003, and the building was completed on August 26, 2005. The new building contains 105 apartments of senior housing. A lottery was held to determine priority for occupancy, with 2 residents of the original I-Hotel given priority. Occupancy started in October 2005. The Manilatown Heritage Foundation now sits in the area, with a historical display commemorating the original I-Hotel.

(Editor’s note:  Last August 4, 2008 was the commemoration of the final eviction of the tenants of I-Hotel.  Various activities are scheduled including a film showing of Manilatown is in the Heart, a time travel documentary, on August 9.  For more information, log on to http://www.manilatown.org)

(www.asianjournal.com)

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US Mint offers special coin collection to Asian American Communities

by Miko Santos/AJPress
SAN FRANCISCO – To celebrate the ostentatious event of the date 8-8-08, the United States Mint released a new set of gold coins targeted primarily for the Asian American community

US Mint Director Edmund C. Moy, the 38th director of the US Mint and the first Asian American to hold the post, discussed the significance of this new set of gold coins, saying, “The 8-8-08 Double Prosperity Set presents a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for coin collectors and the general public.”

The sets go on sale August 8, 2008 or “08-08-08.” This date was chosen since the number “8″ is traditionally associated with prosperity in many Asian cultures. A date with the “triple 8″ only occurs once every 100 years.

To mark this occasion, this is also the first time the United States Mint has paired two gold coins in custom-designed packaging, making this set a unique product for the Asian-American community.  The sets will be priced at $1298.95. There is no production limit placed on the sets.

The American Buffalo One-Half Ounce Gold Uncirculated Coin contained in this set is one of the newly-released fractional weight options in the expanded American Buffalo Coin Program.  The coin bears the classic portrait of a Native American in profile on the obverse and the magnificent American Buffalo, or bison, on the reverse.  Noted American sculptor James Earle Fraser, a student of Augustus Saint-Gaudens, originally designed both images for the redesigned five-cent coin (nickel) released in 1913.

The American Eagle One-Half Ounce Gold Uncirculated Coin displays Augustus Saint-Gaudens’ enduring full-length figure of Liberty with flowing hair, holding a torch in her right hand and an olive branch in her left.  The coin’s reverse, by Miley Busiek, bears the endearing image of a male eagle clutching an olive branch while soaring above a nest containing a female eagle and her hatchlings.

Both coins in the 8-8-08 Double Prosperity Set are legal tender with a nominal face value designation of $25.  But their gold metal content and artistry make them worth far more.  Inscriptions on the coins include the “W” mint mark for the United States Mint at West Point , the date, the fineness and the weight.  The coins are packaged in an attractive hardwood box with a Certificate of Authenticity signed by Director Moy.

Customers may order the 8-8-08 Double Prosperity Set at the United States Mint’s secure Web site at http://www.usmint.gov.  Orders may also be placed at the toll-free number, 1-800-USA-MINT (872-6468).  Please add $4.95 shipping and handling fee to all domestic orders.  There is no set product limit for the 8-8-08 Double Prosperity Set.

(www.asianjournal.com)

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Talk is cheapest now

by Malou Liwanag-Aguilar/AJPress
It is a fact that the way we communicate with the rest of the world has been dramatically changed since the invention of the Internet.

In the past, getting the message through was a struggle, especially when we were entirely dependent on postal mail, a.k.a., snail mail.  Also, gone are the days of expensive phone calls, again, thanks to the Internet.  Aside from the usual voice chats or conversations, the introduction of the Voice over Internet Protocols (VOIP) has given people the chance to keep in touch on the cheap.

Saying ‘hello’ over the Net

Voice over Internet Protocol or VoIP or Broadband phone service as it is often referred to, has changed the telephony world.  It has slowly phased out traditional phone lines as businesses and households around the world embrace the benefits.

The technology started as far back as 1995, when a small company called Vocatec released what was believed to be the first Internet phone software.  Designed to run on a home PC, it was simply called “Internet Phone.”  It had initial success, but the lack of broadband availability in 1995 resulted in poor voice quality when compared to a normal telephone call.  By 1998 however, VoIP traffic had grown approximately 1% of all voice traffic in the US.  Businesses were jumping on the bandwagon and started to create devices to enable PC-to-phone and phone-to-phone communication work.  By the year 2000, VoIP traffic accounted for more than 3 percent of all voice traffic.

By 2005, all major voice quality issues have been addressed and the system was able to ensure reliable, clear sounding and unbroken calls.  It is forecasted that revenue from VoIP equipment will be over $8.5 billion by the end of 2008, driven primarily by low cost unlimited calling plans and the abundance of enhanced and useful telephony features associated with the technology.

Snail mail vs e-mail

It has been a longstanding debate – which is better, snail mail or e-mail?  However, in a survey conducted by the International Communications Research (ICR), it was a mixture of results.  Although the survey concluded that respondents overwhelmingly prefer promotional messages via snail mail, it doesn’t necessarily mean that they are persuaded by them.

Electronic mail, or e-mail is a natural use of networked communication technology that developed along with the evolution of the Internet.  It was, in fact, already in use in the early 1960s, developed for the ARPANET shortly after its creation.  It has now evolved tremendously into the powerful e-mail technology, a widely used technology on the Internet today.

E-mail provides a way to exchange information between two or more people with no set-up costs or less paperwork.  It is also a convenient way to send the same message to multiple addressees, with a swift click of the ‘send’ button.

A number of people however still see the e-mail as ‘too impersonal’ or business-like.  This is probably because handwriting a letter, putting it in an envelope and actually mailing it out, takes more effort, thus the personalized touch.  Still, the advantage of time and cost overthrows the reasoning, making the e-mail an essential part of our lives – business or personal.

(www.asianjournal.com)

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Strange Brew

by Nickee de Leon/AJPress
Wherever in the world the globe-trotting Pinoy may be, one alcoholic beverage has remained sine qua non — a satisfying brew known as beer. For Filipinos in the United States, it’s practically euphoric to be living in beer heaven, with hundreds, maybe even thousands of varieties and brands to choose from.
In the Philippines, beer is a staple drink in every gathering — be it with family, friends or colleagues. It’s customary to have several bottled or canned beer chilling in the fridge as Filipinos are known to be strong drinkers.  After all, beer catalyzes one’s courage to belt out a few songs in videoke– yet another fixture in every Pinoy affair.

For most yuppies, the most anticipated time of the day is the “happy hour.” Filipinos are ardent lovers of the nightlife and what best way to spend it than to indulge one’s self in the “buy one, get one” special offer for beers. It’s getting the “buzz” without going over the budget.

But what is a refreshing bottle of San Miguel, Red Horse or Cerveza Negra without pulutan? The Filipino concept of pulutan (or barchow) is a sub-culture in itself. Being hefty eaters, Pinoys definitely won’t settle for a mere bowl of peanuts. Picking the right pulutan is perhaps, as equally crucial as drinking beer itself. Take your pick from all-time favorites such as sisig, chicharong bulaklak and calamari to the more daring papaitan and calderetang kambing. For most male drinkers, the choice of pulutan is actually a gauge for masculinity and machismo. The more daring you are with your choice of beer and pulutan, the closer you are to becoming the quintessential alpha male.

However, it’s not only Pinoys who enjoy these flavorful brewskies. Beer is a universal concoction — the proverbial grog that’s enjoyed by different cultures across the globe. It has become both an elixir for pain and a catalyst for pleasure. In the United States, watching Superbowl or the NBA playoffs seems incomplete without beer in hand. In Germany, the Oktoberfest is the most famous and highly-anticipated  Bavarian tradition of the year –  a sixteen-day festival that attracts about six million people annually.

So what is beer exactly? And why has it become the celebratory drink of choice?

An ancient brew

According to wikipedia.org, “Beer is an alcoholic beverage produced by brewing and the fermentation of starches derived from cereals. The most common cereal for beer brewing is malted barley, although wheat, corn, and rice are also widely used, usually in conjunction with barley. Most beer is flavoured with hops, which adds a slightly bitter taste and acts as a natural preservative. Occasionally, other ingredients such as herbs or fruit may also be included in the brewing process. Alcoholic beverages fermented from non-starch sources such as grape juice (wine) or honey (mead) are not classified as beer.”

Possibly one of the world’s oldest alcoholic beverages, detailed recipes of beermaking were found in Babylonian clay tablets that date back to 4,300 BC. The ancient Chinese, Assyrians and Incas were also known for brewing beer, says Didyouknow.cd.

Britannica.com says that beer may possibly date back to the 6th millennium BC and is recorded in the written history of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia.

The University of Pennysylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology’s Earliest Chemical Evidence of Beer states that the earliest known chemical evidence of beer has been traced to circa 3,500–3,100 BC — from the site of Godin Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran.

“As almost any substance containing carbohydrates, mainly sugar or starch, can naturally undergo fermentation, it is likely that beer-like beverages were independently invented among various cultures throughout the world. The invention of bread and beer has been argued to be responsible for humanity’s ability to develop technology and build civilization,” says wikipedia.org.

Founded in 1294, The Augustiner brewery in Munich is the oldest brewery in the world. An Augustinian monastery was established at the Haberfeld upon the order of the bishop of Freising. Munich became world-famous for its breweries which were operated by monks.

“In 1506, beer was given a makeover when the German Purity Law made it mandatory for beer to only have four ingredients: water, barley, wheat and hops,” says Microbrewery-mgi.com.

Beer ingredients

The four key ingredients of standard brews was also described in the same website.

“Barley is a key ingredient that adds a certain amount of color and flavor, depending on the roasting time. Barley is responsible for the sweet taste in beers.”

“Hops come in several different varieties. The type used, as well as the length of time it’s included in the brewing process, affect the bitterness, aroma and flavor of the beer. Hops are called the ‘spice of beer.”

“Water may be flavorless, but this main ingredient’s chemical components often affect the final flavor of the beer. Hard water produces bitter ale, while softer water produces a bitter lager.”

“Yeast comes in various strains and affects the flavor and aroma. This ingredient converts the sugar in the malt into alcohol.”

Beer style

In Michael Jackson’s seminal book, The World Guide to Beer, published in 1977, he categorized “a variety of beers from around the world in local style groups suggested by local customs and names,” says wikipedia.org. His book has become a significant influence to the modern theory of beer style.

Various elements constitute beer style — appearance (which includes color, clarity and nature of the head); aroma, flavor(brought about by bittering agents as hops, roasted barley and herbs), mouthfeel (based on the smoothness and viscosity of the beer in the mouth), strength (from the amount of fermentable material converted into alcohol), yeast,grains, hops, water and other ingredients.

Ales and Lagers

With the onset of more innovative brewing technology, several variations of beers have proliferated across the globe, with over 20,000 brands of beer that can be grouped into 180 styles. However, the most common types of beer can still be classified either as ales or lagers.

A top-fermenting yeast strain called saccharomyces cerevisiae which is fermented at higher temperatures (15-23 degrees Celsius or 60-70 degrees fahrenheit) is responsible for giving ale higher alcohol content. The warm temperature is suited for the production of esters or acidic chemical compounds and robust and fruity flavors and aromas that resemble those of apples, pears, pineapple, grass, hay, bananas, plums or prunes.

Amber ale, barleywine, brown ale, pale ale, porter, stout and wheat beer are beers that can be classified as ales.

On the other hand, lagers use a bottom-fermenting yeast called saccharomyces carlsbergensis, fermented at temperatures ranging from 45 to 55  degrees Fahrenheit and stored at temperatures between 30-40 degrees Fahrenheit. Cooler temperatures inhibit the growth of esters and produce a smoother, crisper and more elegant taste. Lagers are the most highly-consumed beers in the world.

Indeed, beer is no longer regarded as a mere beverage — it has become a thriving pop icon. Beermakers as Budweiser, Miller and Roling Rock have taken giant leaps and strides in advertising  to elevate people’s perception of this frothy beverage. Beer-drinking has become a lifestyle in itself — an indispensable part of popular culture.

(www.asianjournal.com)

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